Biblical Words 
Chosen people betray the heritage of their God, while others journey on toward the etiquette of God’s banquet.
This reading is God’s argument that the Israelites have betrayed their privileged status and turned away from the living God.
The rhetorical question, “What wrong did your ancestors find in me…?” (verse 5,
is a challenge to give reasons why the ancestors might be justified in abandoning
God and going after the Hebel (Hebrew for “vanity,” “nothing,”) and
becoming nothings themselves. Why didn’t
the ancestors pray as they should have, asking “where is Yahweh” who had led
them through great trials to the promised land? (verse 6). This reproach speech uses old traditions
about how the Israelites repeatedly turned against God, in spite of great
blessings received, during the trials of exodus, wilderness, and even in the
promised land (see the long treatment of this theme in Psalm 78). RSV
But if the past had no reasons to abandon Yahweh, what of the present?
The speech next says “you” (no longer the ancestors) – you are the ones who received the abundant land, ate its fruits, but who also contaminated it with your unfaithfulness to the Lord. The ancestors were spoken of as a single group, but the present generations are organized into a complex society, with offices and institutions. Four groups are indicted (verse 8). The priests did not pray properly, the law instructors paid no attention to Yahweh’s requirements, the political leaders (shepherds) violated God’s boundaries (“trans-gressed”), and the prophets spoke in the name of the Ba‘al.
Given this conduct, the Lord now sues the straying people for breach of faith.
The word “accuse” in verse 9 is the Hebrew verb rīb, “contend with,” “bring charges against” someone for violating a treaty. For a people to abandon its God, who gathered it and established it, is unprecedented – just go ask everybody between the Cypriots in the west and the Arabs of Kedar in the east (verse 10). Even when their gods are “no gods,” folks stay with them!
But here is an incredible case – let the heavens themselves, who witness to great covenants on earth, be overwhelmed! God’s people have done two evils; they have abandoned the true source of fresh, living water, and gone to dig out cisterns (which hold only still water) – cisterns which they have learned to their pain have cracks and keep no water for the time of need.
This is a powerful speech, preparing the ground for some call to action. What God wants now is not specified in this speech, but is clear from the historical situation. This speech is an appeal to the people of the old northern kingdom (Jacob/Israel) with its strong traditions of the ancestors. The ancestors did indeed stray from the Lord, and the recent generations reinforced that betrayal in their institutions.
But such “unnatural” behavior can be reversed;
can still repent and reunite under their true Lord (in Israel )
who gave them their favorable heritage.
That is the message of this remarkable speech. Jerusalem
Psalm 81:1, 10-16.
The Psalm reading is a precise parallel to what God says through the prophet.
After a summons to praise the God of Jacob, the psalm presents God lamenting over
unfaithfulness. “My people did not
listen to my voice; / Israel
would not submit to me” (verse 11). As
is also heard in some Jeremiah passages, God yearns and longs for Israel
to pay attention. “O that my people
would listen to me, / that Israel
would walk in my ways!” (verse 13). Israel
In a more liturgical setting, this prophetic psalm also gives expression to the divine disappointment and sorrow at disobedience.
The Epistle reading gives detailed guidelines for the conduct of Jesus pilgrims on earth.
- As is appropriate for travelers, hospitality
is the first requirement mentioned.
Take in the sojourner in the land, whether his visa papers are
correct or not – you never know when you may be entertaining angels
unawares. (The writer might have in
mind stories about Abraham,
Genesis 18:2-15, or Samson’s mother, Judges 13:3-23.)
- Besides travelers, act responsibly toward prisoners – put yourself in their place and do for them what you would want done for you! (verse 3). (This is addressed to people subject to intermittent persecution.)
- Pilgrims are also to honor and observe marriage vows (verse 4).
- In addition, greed is out of court for pilgrims – no capitalists on this journey (verse 5).
- Finally, this pilgrimage is not just a mass movement; there are leaders who bring the word of God and serve as models for pilgrim behavior. Remember to support them (verse 7).
The persistent feature of this journey – the pillar of cloud and fire that leads it in the wilderness – is Jesus Christ, “the same yesterday and today and forever” (verse 8). Through him a chorus of praise should be “continually” offered up (verse 15) – a reference to the “continual” burnt offering that was made twice a day in the old sanctuary, here to be replaced by prayer in the name of Jesus.
The Gospel reading is about banquets.
The opening verse says that Jesus, invited to a dinner party by a leading Pharisee on the Sabbath, was being watched very carefully – presumably to see if he would violate their rules again. We skip a passage about healing on the Sabbath (last week’s topic) and come to proper seating at a banquet.
Jesus’ advice about proper seating is called a “parable” (verse 7). This means the talk is really about the heavenly reign, though it appears to be about earthly things.
On its earthly level, Jesus’ advice repeats the wisdom of
– take the lower seat so you don’t get demoted.
But when this is applied to the banquet that inaugurates the reign of
God, it leads to the next paragraph, verses 12-14. Not only the guests should take the humble
places at the table, but the host should prepare the guest list with God’s view
in mind, not the chic of the current well-to-do.
You should imitate God by inviting the poor, the disabled, and the visually challenged. To do so is to bring blessing to these lost sheep of the Lord and thereby to gain true blessing for yourself – “for you will be repaid at the resurrection of the righteous” (verse 14,
Jesus, like the Pharisees, believed in the resurrection. There is decidedly a good time coming – and it will give the righteous (only they are included here) a chance for a completed life in God’s own way.